The LMU Style Guide provides basic standards for grammar, spelling, and punctuation. It is intended as a general guide and extension of the Associated Press Stylebook, one of the most popular and standardized mass communication guides used throughout the world for the last century. Writers working in broadcasting, magazine publishing, marketing departments and public relations firms traditionally adopt and apply AP grammar and punctuation styles. Therefore, LMU has adopted AP style for its official communications and publications.
The first section covers matters of style and preferences specific to Loyola Marymount University. Like every style guide, our aim is consistency, clarity and correctness. While you may not agree with every “rule” set forth in this guide, you may find an answer to a persistent question. If you have a question that is not addressed in this guide, please feel free to contact Marketing and Communications.
Updated October 2016
1 LMU Drive – not One LMU Drive
Academy for Catholic Thought and Imagination – ACTI on subsequent reference
Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam – The Jesuit motto. The Latin translates to “For the Greater Glory of God.”
AFROTC – Air Force Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (note possessive), the ROTC program at LMU
African American Studies – a major and a minor offered in the Bellarmine College of Liberal Arts.
Ahmanson Auditorium – alternately known as University Hall, Room 1000
AJCU – Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities, a consortium headquartered in Washington, D.C., of which LMU is a member.
Alpha Sigma Nu – The Jesuit honor society
Alumni for Others – service project organized in Alumni Relations
Alumni Weekend Celebration
Asian and Pacific Studies – a major and a minor offered in the Bellarmine College of Liberal Arts
Asian Pacific American Studies – a minor offered in the Bellarmine College of Liberal Arts
Athletics Department – also LMU Athletics. Note: capitalize when referring to the department, don’t capitalize if you are referring to athletics in general.
Basil P. Caloyeras Center for Modern Greek Studies
Bellarmine College of Liberal Arts – Always use the full name on first reference; Bellarmine College or BCLA is acceptable on subsequent references.
Bird Nest – not Birds Nest, Bird’s Nest or Birds’ Nest.
bluff – lowercase when referring to the beloved campus location overlooking Playa Vista.
Board of Trustees – Capitalize when referring to LMU’s Board of Trustees (this is an exception to AP style). Do not capitalize when referring to the board.
Board of Regents – Capitalize when referring to LMU’s Board of Regents (this is an exception to AP style). Do not capitalize when referring to the board.
Books – Use quotation marks for titles of books, not italics (follow AP Stylebook rules for composition titles).
Burns Recreation Center – Use full name.
Capitalization – Capitalize a person’s title when it appears before a name but not when they follow a name (for more details, see AP Stylebook).
Do not capitalize university when referring to Loyola Marymount University in a subsequent reference or a generic sense, per the AP Stylebook: “Lowercase these common nouns when they stand alone in subsequent references.” e.g., Promoting academic excellence is embedded in the university’s strategic plan.
Capitalize all schools, colleges and academic centers: the Bellarmine College of Liberal Arts; the School of Film and Television; the Thomas and Dorothy Leavey Center for the Study of Los Angeles, etc.
Capitalize the names of buildings, departments, centers, and divisions, but not majors or general areas of expertise, e.g., the College of Communication and Fine Arts and the Center for Service and Action together offer a course on social justice.
Specific course titles, and papers and presentations and should be in quotes and capitalized (but not italicized). e.g., The College of Communication and Fine Arts and the Center for Service and Action together offer a course called “The Legacy of Mary Poppins.”
Capitalize Mass, Board of Trustees, Board of Regents. Do not capitalize when referring only to the board.
Center for Accounting Ethics, Governance, and the Public Interest – Located in the College of Business Administration
Center for Ethics and Business – Located in the College of Business Administration
Center for Ignatian Spirituality
Center for the Study of Los Angeles – Use the full name, the Thomas and Dorothy Leavey Center for the Study of Los Angeles, on first reference; thereafter, Leavey Center for the Study of Los Angeles and LCSLA are acceptable.
Children’s Center – LMU Children’s Center is the proper name.
college – Lowercase when it stands alone, even when referring back to a specific college.
College of Business Administration – Always use the full name on first reference; thereafter CBA is acceptable.
College of Communication and Fine Arts – Always use the full name on first reference; thereafter CFA is acceptable.
Conrad N. Hilton Center for Business – This is the name of the building in which the College of Business Administration is housed. The college itself is not named.
courses – Capitalize specific course titles and put in quotes, e.g., Bob Smith, professor of communication, teaches the graduate-level course “Media Relations in Ethical Business.”
C.S.J. – Sisters of St. Joseph of Orange. One of the sponsoring orders of LMU. Use C.S.J. If you bold person’s name, then also bold C.S.J. Do not use Sister or Sr. with C.S.J. or R.S.H.M.
cura personalis – An Ignatian term meaning a personal concern and respect for others. Use italics because it is a foreign phrase.
Doctor – Use when referring to a medical doctor, not professors. Abbreviate as Dr. before full name only in direct quotations. Use M.D. in all other cases.
Drollinger Parking Plaza – Use plaza, not Drollinger Parking Lot. E
emeritus – A designated title for a former professor (it frequently comes with an office and benefits). Not all retired professors are given emeritus status. Capitalize as a formal title before a name, lowercase after.
Father – Spell out before a priest’s name. Do not use Father with S.J.; instead, omit Father and use S.J. after the name. Do not abbreviate as Fr.
first-year –Hyphenate when the words first year are used as an adjective together, e.g., first-year student, first-year course. Except: LMU’s First Year Experience.
fleur-de-lis – Traditionally the heraldic sign of the French royal family. It is used in the presidential seal to represent the French origins of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary (R.S.H.M.). Always hyphenate. Note that the plural is fleurs-de-lis.
foreign words/phrases – Use italics except if the word or phrase has been accepted into the English language; consult the dictionary. Use quotation marks if an explanation is necessary.
Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering – Always use the full name on first reference.
Hannon Parking Lot
William H. Hannon Library – Dedicated in August 200; Hannon Library on subsequent reference.
Ignatian – A descriptive term for those things of or relating to St. Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuits, or the Jesuit order.
JAA – Jesuit Advancement Administrators
Jesuits – One of the founding religious orders of LMU. Also known as the Society of Jesus. Capitalize.
KXLU – LMU’s radio station. Frequency is 88.9 FM.
Laband Art Gallery – a part of the College of Communication and Fine Arts, located in the Burns Fine Arts Complex. Laband on subsequent reference.
Latino Alumni Association – until 2012 was called the Mexican American Alumni Association.
Leavey Center for the Study of Los Angeles – Use full name, the Thomas and Dorothy Leavey Center for the Study of Los Angeles, on first reference; thereafter, Leavey Center for the Study of Los Angeles and LCSLA are acceptable.
lectures – Capitalize with quotation marks when title is given.
Lions – Refers to all LMU athletes, male and female. Never use the term “Lady Lions.”
Loyola Law School – Always use the full name on first reference; the law school is the preferred subsequent reference, but LLS is acceptable when necessary. Capitalize only when the full name is used. In LMU Magazine, use Law to indicate degree achieved by an alumnus or alumna of the law school: John Lion [LibArts’77, Law ’81].
Los Angeles Loyolan – The student-run, weekly campus newspaper, in print and online.
LMU – Spell out first reference to Loyola Marymount University, use LMU, or university (lowercase) in subsequent references.
Los Angeles – Abbreviate as L.A. when used as an adjective: L.A. City Council. When used as part of LMU brand, no periods.
Mass – Capitalize.
Mass of the Holy Spirit – Traditional Mass at Jesuit schools to begin the school year. Capitalize.
The Marymount Institute – Use Marymount Institute for Faith, Culture and the Arts on first reference. The institute is located in the Marymount Center in University Hall.
magis – An Ignatian term meaning “a striving for excellence.” Italicize.
Murphy Recital Hall– Located in the Burns Fine Arts Complex.
O.Carm. – No space. An abbreviation of the religious Order of the Carmelites, e.g., Albert Koppes, O.Carm., associate chancellor and former dean of the School of Education. If you bold the person’s name, then also bold O.Carm.
Office of Admission – Not “Admissions.” Capitalize.
President’s Day – Specify as “LMU President’s Day”
professor – Capitalize only when it comes directly before the name.
professor titles – Professors’ titles should be written in the following style: Mary Smith, professor of psychology, was honored at the conference. Avoid using Ph.D. with professors’ names. Do not use Dr. when referring to an academic.
Ralph M. Parsons Environmental Engineering Laboratory
Regents Terrace – Between St. Robert’s and Malone; no apostrophe is used in the name of the terrace.
religious orders – The use of a religious order’s abbreviation following a name is preferred to the use of a title such as Father, Sister, etc. (William Fulco, S.J.). Do not use both a title and the order’s abbreviation.
Roski Dining Room – Located in University Hall.
R.S.H.M. – Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary, one of the founding orders of Marymount College. Do not use Sister with R.S.H.M. or with C.S.J. If you bold a person’s name, then also bold R.S.H.M.
Sacred Heart Chapel
Seaver College of Science and Engineering – Always use the full name on first reference: Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering
Sir Thomas More Chair of Engineering Ethics
Sister – Preferred usage is the abbreviation of the specific religious order after the name (see S.J.). Do not use Sister with C.S.J. or R.S.H.M. e.g., Peg Dolan, R.S.H.M., is the alumni chaplain. Do not abbreviate as Sr.
St. Ignatius de Loyola – Founder of the Society of Jesus. Born Iñigo Lopez de Loyola, he lived from 1491 to 1556.
School of Education – Always use the full name on first reference. Capitalize only when the full name is used.
School of Film and Television – Always use the full name on first reference. Capitalize only when the full name is used. SFTV on subsequent references.
Sculpture Garden – located west of Sacred Heart Chapel
S.J. – Abbreviation for the Society of Jesus. Place after the name of all Jesuit priests or brothers on first reference. Always set off by commas, e.g., Robert B. Lawton, S.J., is the former president of the university.
Society of Jesus – The religious order also known as the Jesuits. One of the founding orders of LMU.
Sunken Garden – Not “Gardens.” Capitalize.
theatre – Preferred use of the word in deference to usage by the College of Communication and Fine Arts.
Theatre Arts – The Department of Theatre Arts and Dance.
Thomas and Dorothy Leavey Center for the Study of Los Angeles – Use full name on first reference, and Leavey Center for the Study of Los Angeles and LCSLA on subsequent references.
titles/names – The general rule is: titles are capitalized before a name, but not after the name.
President Timothy Law Snyder, Ph.D.; Timothy Law Snyder, Ph.D., president of Loyola Marymount University (preferred)
Joseph Hellige, executive vice president and provost; Provost Joseph Hellige
Elena M. Bove, senior vice president for student affairs; Senior V.P. Elena M. Bove
Thomas O. Fleming Jr., senior vice president and chief financial officer; Senior V.P. and CFO Thomas O. Fleming Jr.
Michael Waterstone, senior vice president and dean of Loyola Law School; Senior V.P. and Dean Michael Waterstone
Evelynne B. Scarboro, senior vice president for administration; Senior V.P. Evelynne B. Scarboro
Dennis Slon, senior vice president for university relations; Senor V.P. Dennis Slon
Robert V. Caro, S.J., vice president for mission and ministry; V.P. Robert V. Caro, S.J.
Abbie Robinson-Armstrong, vice president for intercultural affairs; V.P. Abbie Robinson-Armstrong
Bryant K. Alexander, dean, College of Communication and Fine Arts; Dean Bryant K. Alexander
Kristine R. Brancolini, dean, University Library; Dean Kristine R. Brancolini
S.W. Tina Choe, dean, Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering; Dean S.W. Tina Choe
Robbin D. Crabtree, dean, Bellarmine College of Liberal Arts; Dean Robbin D. Crabtree
Dennis W. Draper, dean, College of Business Administration; Dean Dennis W. Draper
Shane P. Martin, dean, School of Education; Dean Shane P. Martin
Stephen Ujlaki, dean, School of Film and Television; Dean Stephen Ujlaki
titled/entitled – titled means named; entitled means to have a right to.
time – Include a.m. and p.m. Do not include minutes unless necessary, e.g., The class begins at 8 a.m. Also, use noon and midnight instead of 12 p.m. or 12 a.m.
time – Include a.m. and p.m. Do not include minutes unless necessary, e.g., The class begins at 8 a.m. Also, use noon and midnight instead of 12 p.m. or 12 a.m.
toward – Not towards.
Tower – The LMU yearbook.
UC Schools – Spell out locations except for UCLA and USC, e.g., UC Santa Barbara, etc. Spell out names of all other schools, e.g., University of Nevada, Las Vegas, California State University, Fullerton.
UCLA – Do not spell out; no periods.
university – Do not capitalize when referring to LMU in subsequent references or in the generic sense.
USC – Do not spell out; no periods.
U.S. – Use as adjective only. Spell out when used as a noun.
vice president/president – Only capitalize when title appears directly before the name.
Von Der Ahe – use upper case for initial letter of all three parts of the name when referring to the Charles Von Der Ahe building (formerly Von der Ahe library). Except: Von der Ahe Suite in the William H. Hannon Library.
WCC – West Coast Conference. Spell out on first reference; thereafter, WCC is acceptable.
Web – Use Web. Avoid using World Wide Web, Information Highway, etc. When writing a URL, don’t use http://www. if possible. Use only www.—-
years – Use figures without commas, even at the beginning of a sentence. Use an “s” without an apostrophe to indicate spans of time or centuries, e.g., the 1980s.
If you don’t see your answer here, please consult the printed or online complete Associated Press Stylebook.
When referring to a letter grade, do not use quotation marks to set the grade apart, or an apostrophe for a plural. Note: Use an en dash for a minus: A–, etc.
Grace saw that her final exam score raised her grade to an A in political science, meaning she had earned all As for the fall semester.
Use “a” before heroic, historian (in front of a consonant or words beginning with a pronounced h); a one-year fellowship (before a “w” sound); a united voice (before a “you” sound). “A” comes before words with a consonant sound, including v, h, w, no matter how the word is spelled (a eulogy, a historic event, a quality product).
“An” comes before words with a vowel sound (an LSAT exam room, an X-ray report, an hour late).
With organizations, spell out titles on first reference. If the organization is well-known (such as the National Collegiate Athletic Association), then on first reference do not follow the organization’s name with its abbreviation in parentheses. If the organization is not well-known, it is acceptable, but not preferable, in the first reference to follow the name with its abbreviation in parentheses. Use the abbreviation in subsequent references.
In general, avoid abbreviations or acronyms that the reader would not quickly recognize; also avoid lists of abbreviations or acronyms that produce the effect of alphabet soup.
Do not abbreviate the names of campus buildings, e.g., St. Robert’s, not St. Rob’s; Burns Recreation Center, not Burns Rec.
Some exceptions to the use of periods: LMU, USC, UCLA, CFO, CEO
In general, identify professors by their title with their academic department: Mary Smith, professor of psychology, was honored at the conference. If mention of a degree is necessary to establish someone’s credentials, avoid an abbreviation and use instead a phrase such as: Jane Doe, who has a doctorate in psychology, was honored today.
Use periods in academic degrees and enclose with commas when used as reference to a person’s degree, e.g., John Doe, M.B.A., was a rich man; M.D., Ph.D., B.A., B.S., M.A., M.B.A.
Spell out degree if using in a generic sense, using the following style: Bachelor of Arts, a bachelor’s degree, Master of Arts, Master of Science, a master’s degree, a doctorate, e.g., She wanted to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree.
Take care in copy to note that degrees are earned, they are not received
Acceptable for an American black person of African descent. Also acceptable is black. The terms are not necessarily interchangeable. People from the Caribbean, for example, generally refer to themselves as Caribbean-American. Follow the person’s preference. Associated Press hyphenates, except: African American Studies, the department at LMU.
The word alumni is not capitalized.
American Indian refers to historically indigenous people of North America, although tribal names are often used instead. Depending on the circumstances, this identification is probably a better choice than Native American since many natives are often of other backgrounds.
And is preferable to an ampersand, which should be used only when the name of a company, group, or composition specifically calls for it, as in AT&T. Use of ampersands in headlines, posters, or Web content is acceptable. Do not include a comma before an ampersand.
Assure means to promise something or to remove doubt.
Ensure means to make certain something will happen.
Insure means to purchase insurance.
In running text, baccalaureate is not capitalized.
Capitalize Bible, but not biblical.
Use the following form to punctuate Bible chapters and verses:
Capitalize Board of Trustees when in reference to LMU’s administrative body. Subsequent use in a shortened form, however, is lowercased: the board, the trustees.
Do not abbreviate.
In general, avoid unnecessary capitalization. Use a capital letter only if you can justify by applying these standards:
Proper noun, proper name, it is listed separately here or in the Associated Press Stylebook. Lowercase common nouns when they stand alone in subsequent references, e.g. university (referring to LMU), foundation, center, etc.
For consistency and quick identification in photo captions, list subjects from left to right, using each person’s full name and title, and include “left to right” or “from left,” for clarity, in the caption.
Chair has come to replace chairman, chairwoman, and chairperson, although all of these terms are still acceptable. Use the terminology that the chairholder’s organization, or the chairholder, prefers.
Capitalize when referring to the Catholic Church as an institution.
Capitalize the word Class in reference to a graduating class. (Note the single closing quotation mark before the year.)
Class groups such as freshman, sophomore, junior, senior, or graduate are not capitalized when in reference to the year in which a course is taken or to the student’s classification.
Written in lowercase: classical Latin
Close up on most cases, such as coexist, cooperate, coauthor, coworker.
On second reference, the college may be used.
Capitalize the first word following a colon only if that is the beginning of a complete sentence.
When using a colon, be sure that the words that come before it form an independent clause.
A colon should not be used after at or such as, between the verb and the rest of the sentence, or between a preposition and its object. This rule includes situations in which a list follows these elements.
Items following a colon are not automatically separated by semicolons. The rules for dividing items in a series by commas should be followed.
Do not use a comma before the words and and or that come before the final item in a series, unless it is needed for clarity.
Place a comma after a digit signifying thousands, except when the reference is to a year: 1,150 students or the year 2005.
When writing a date consisting of month, day, and year, place a comma after the day and the year.
Commas are not used, however, when only the month and day, or only the month and year, are written.
However, commas are not used before Jr., Sr., II, III, at the end of a person’s name.
Capitalize Commencement when in reference to a specific LMU ceremony.
Complement refers to making something complete.
A compliment is an admiring remark. Complimentary also means to give free as a courtesy.
Shifting between first, second, and third person when addressing the same subject is a common problem. If referring to students as they, for example, do not refer to them elsewhere as you.
For consistency and ease of identification in photo captions, list subjects from left to right, using each person’s full name and title, if any, and include the obligatory “left to right” or “from left” instruction in the caption.
A person is convinced about something, but is persuaded to do something.
Country names are not generally abbreviated.
Capitalize a specific course or subject name, such as ACCT 10350, Federal Taxation.
Names of college studies, fields of study, options, curricula, or subjects are not capitalized, except names of languages, unless a specific course name is noted.
Spaces are included on either side of a dash, whether used in text or tabular matter.
Use an em dash (—) to set off parenthetical matter that calls for emphasis; to show an interruption in speech; to occasionally set off appositives; and to prepare for restatements, lists, or a change in thought. An em-dash is the length of two hyphens.
Use an en dash (–), slightly longer than a hyphen, within sets of numerals (such as date ranges) or letters, and to separate multiple compound modifiers that are made up of multiple proper nouns or hyphenated words.
When writing a date consisting of month, day, and year, place a comma after the day and the year.
In running text, names of months are abbreviated: The advisory board will meet on Tuesday, Oct. 10.
Exceptions: March, April, May, June and July are never abbreviated
Commas are not used, however, when only the month and day, or only the month and year, are written.
generic term, lowercase; Dean Crabtree (capitalized with specific person when placed before a name, lowercased when after: Robbin Crabtree, dean of Bellarmine College of Liberal Arts)
List as 2012–13 (not 2012-2013); the ’90s; the 1990s
decision making (two words, no hyphen, as a noun) decision-making process (hyphenated when an adjective)
Academic degrees should be spelled out on first reference within text material, and abbreviated thereafter in all text and tabular material, except when part of a person’s name/title.
Capitalize letter abbreviations of academic degrees.
Generally, names of degrees are lowercased, designating a field of study:
Capitalize when part of a complete title.
Dr. is used to refer to a doctor of medicine, dentistry, or veterinary medicine. It is not used to refer to people who hold a doctor’s degree but don’t practice in one of these fields, including professors.
Due to is an adjective phrase that usually follows a form of the verb to be. It is often used incorrectly as a preposition in place of because of.
usually lowercase unless used as the proper name of the planet.
Capitalize if referring to a specific geographic region, but not a compass direction. Do not spell out in street addresses: 200 W. Elm Street, for example.
As language and terminology evolves for Web use, the following list includes commonly used terms:
LMU’s main website is lmu.edu (no need to include www. in the address).
When determining if www. is needed in listing a website, check it to see if the site is accessible without this designation. Avoid including it if possible. Web addresses do not need to be italicized but can be bolded or placed in color to attract attention or to clarify.
When including a URL in running copy, aim to avoid placing it at a line break; rewrite the sentence if necessary. If a Web address is at the end of a sentence include a period or other ending punctuation as necessary.
Ellipsis points are used to show omission within a quotation. However, it is not necessary to place the points at the beginning or end of a quotation, even if an omission is being made at that point.
Use ellipsis points in sets of three. Leave a space between each point, as well as between the words on either side of them.
Ellipses should be used sparingly.
The word email is not capitalized unless it is the first word of a sentence. Email is not hyphenated.
Entitled means give a right to. There is no comma between titled and the title.
Etc. should be used sparingly, and not in conjunction with such as, which signals that the list of items following is only a partial list, or with and as in and etc.
Capitalize when referring to the sacrament.
Everyday means common or ordinary. Every day means occurring daily.
The first reference should refer to the religious order: Thomas Rausch, S.J. Subsequent references he may be referred to as Father Thomas or Father Rausch. Do not abbreviate as Fr.
Federal government is not capitalized except at the beginning of a sentence.
Something cannot be annual until it has been conducted for two successive years. In place of first annual, mention that the event is scheduled to become annual or write first or inaugural.
But: first-year student
If foreign words are necessary and not translatable, italicize them only if they are not in Webster’s. Be sure to include appropriate accent marks and other language symbols.
Gender should be limited to discussion of the social and psychological distinctions between men and women. In all other cases, sex can be used to differentiate between men and women when there is no chance of misinterpretation.
Lowercase when referring to the genre of music. Capitalized when referring to the Gospel of the Bible.
Hannon Library on subsequent references.
Hispanic refers to those from, or whose ancestors are from, a Spanish-speaking country. Latino and Latina are sometimes preferred. These terms also include those of Brazilian background, where Portuguese is spoken.
If both a hyphenated and nonhyphenated spelling of a word are acceptable, use the nonhyphenated spelling.
Adverbs ending in –ly don’t take a hyphen to connect them to the word they describe.
The words vice president and vice chair are not hyphenated.
Use a hyphen between prefixes and proper nouns, such as in un-American or non-Catholic.
Compound modifiers (a string of words that works together to modify another word) should all be hyphenated.
Dollar figures of $1 million or more are not hyphenated when used as a modifier.
According to Webster’s, i.e. comes from the Latin id est, which means “that is.” It is used to introduce something that explains a preceding statement more fully or precisely.
Example: Please take the medication for the time prescribed (i.e., three to five days).
Prefer not use impact as a verb (consider affect or influence instead).
Capitalize Institute only when used in connection with another part of the name, but lowercase when used alone.
Always capitalize Internet, as it is still considered a proper noun.
Italicize only foreign words and phrases, not titles of compositions.
A foreign word or phrase is not italicized if it can be found in Webster’s.
Its means belonging to it.
It’s means it is.
There is no comma between the last name and Jr., Sr., III, etc.
No hyphen when used to designate a starting point.
law school (generic term), but Loyola Law School; the law school is the preferred subsequent reference, but LLS is acceptable when necessary. Capitalize only when the full name is used.
Like should not be used as a synonym for such as, which directly points to examples. Like should be used in the sense of “similar to” and such as as meaning “including these examples.”
Capitalize Mass when referring to the sacrament.
Abbreviate the names of months in datelines and ordinary text when followed by a numerical date, except for the months of March, April, May, June, and July, which are never abbreviated.
(use to indicate rank or position, especially in sportswriting). Do not use # as it now means hashtag in social media.
For print, use figures for numbers 10 and larger, including ordinal numbers (22nd, 34th, and so on). Exceptions: Use numerals, even when the number is less than 10, to indicate age, quantities containing both whole numbers and decimals or fractions, statistics, voting results, sports scores, percentages, amounts of money, times of day, days of the month (when used after the name of the month, as in February 5), latitude and longitude, degrees of temperature, dimensions, measurements, proportions, distances, and numbers that are part of titles. Note: For Web, use numerals for all numbers for faster scanning.
In month-day combinations, ordinals are not used.
However, in other contexts, such as in using a number to denote the repeating occurrences of a regularly occurring event, ordinals are used.
For spans of years. Note that for 1999–2000, or for any span of years in which three or more numbers will change, the entire number for both years should be written out.
For numbers in the millions and beyond, spell out the word million, billion, etc., unless it is necessary to give an exact figure.
Not on-line or on line
Express parallel ideas in a parallel manner.
Observe parallelism throughout the items in a list:
papal, papacy (lowercase)
Spell it out except in headlines, tabular, or other special material. Note: Web style dictates the use of the % sign for ease of reading.
In Web and print, use only one space after any punctuation.
In reference to the time of day, use the abbreviations a.m. and p.m., with periods between the letters. In text material, they should be written in lowercase letters or small caps.
Place periods between the letters of academic degrees (M.A., Ph.D.) and abbreviations of religious orders (R.S.H.M., S.J.).
There are no periods in acronyms unless the entity that the acronym represents specifically uses periods. Use this same principle in making subsequent references to famous people who are popularly known by their initials.
PIN stands for personal identification number. It is redundant to write PIN number.
Capitalize when using as a formal title before a name; lowercase in all other uses.
Most instances, closed: preempt, preeminent, preexist
Capitalize when the title is listed before the name (past or present presidents). Lowercase when the title follow the name. Examples: President Ford or former President Lawton, but president of his alumni club.
not Presidential Professor. It is a designation assigned by the president; there are eight: screenwriting (Melissa Blake); theatre arts (Beth Henley); rhetoric (Steven Mailloux); education (Martha McCarthy); screenwriting (Roberto Orci); marketing (David Stewart); biology (Eric Strauss); communication studies (Philip Wander).
Before is almost always the better alternative.
question and answer
Set quotation marks outside periods and commas and inside colons and semicolons. They also should be placed inside exclamation points and question marks that are not part of the quotation.
Use single quotation marks for quotations printed within other quotations.
If several paragraphs are to be quoted successively, use quotation marks at the beginning of each paragraph and at the end of the last paragraph only.
Capitalize the sacraments — Baptism, Eucharist — as well as the word Bible, in reference to either the Old Testament or New Testament. Church should be capitalized when in reference to any Catholic Mass or to the Catholic Church as an institution (as in “the Church has issued a decree”). The word biblical is lowercased. Scripture is capitalized when referring to books of the Bible.
Capitalize when referring to books of the Bible.
Lowercase (fall, winter, spring, summer)
always hyphenated: self-aware, self-conscious, self-serve
Use semicolons to separate all items in a series if there is internal punctuation within one or more of the items in the series. The length of an item alone does not warrant its use.
Use a semicolon to take the place of a coordinating conjunction in joining two independent clauses.
Do not abbreviate as Sr.; the religious order is preferred. The first reference to a nun should give her full title: Mary Thomas, O.P. Thereafter, she may be referred to as Sister Mary or Sister Thomas. Note that in running text, there is always a comma after the religious designation (C.S.J., S.J.) unless it falls at the end of the sentence.
Olympic-size pool (not sized)
Type only one space between sentences, after a colon, or between a state name and zip code. Use only a single space, always and everywhere, in text material.
Pay attention to consistency when writing telephone numbers in text material. Use periods in place of parentheses or hyphens. Do not use “1” in front of long distance numbers.
minus 10 degrees, or 10 below zero (NOT -10)
Which can be used to introduce a clause containing nonessential or essential information, but that can be used only for essential information. Some writers use which to cover the functions of both relative pronouns, but this sometimes creates difficulty in understanding whether the information being given is essential to the meaning of the sentence.
A good set of rules to follow: If that can be substituted for which without changing the meaning of the sentence, use that. If the information following which is necessary in understanding the sentence, use that. If the information can be omitted from the sentence without affecting its meaning and in most cases can be set off by commas, use which.
Exception: To avoid immediately repeating that in certain constructions, it is acceptable to use which in place of one occurrence of that.
Although the generic he is perfectly grammatical, many today view it as being sexist. Be aware of the sensitivities of your audience in choosing generic, third-person pronouns. For example:
If you believe this sentence could cause offense, you first should consider recasting the sentence in the plural:
Customers might not be aware that they can request this service.
Avoid using clumsy he or she and his or her constructions. When they must be used, use them sparingly. Never use awkward expressions such as he/she, his/her, s/he, he (she), or his (her). Don’t alternate between generic he sentences and generic she sentences as a way of achieving balance.
Another alternative to the generic he and the cumbersome he or she is to switch to the second-person pronoun:
Avoid using this term. Developing nations is more appropriate when referring to the economically developing nations of Africa, Asia and Latin America.
Times of the day should be expressed in numerical terms of hours and minutes, with a colon separating the hours from the minutes and a designation of whether the time is in the morning or the evening, using a.m. and p.m., in lowercase letters or small caps. Leave a space between the time and the a.m. or p.m., and make sure to use periods in the a.m. and p.m.
Exception: *Neither of the 12 o’clock times during the day can accurately be expressed as being “a.m.” or “p.m.” At midday, 12 o’clock should be written as noon, not 12:00 p.m. At night, it should be written as midnight, not 12:00 a.m.
When referring to a time span between two points on the clock, it is not necessary to repeat a.m. or p.m. for both times, if they both occur together in the a.m. or p.m. hours. If the time span crosses from a.m. into p.m. or vice versa, however, designate each time with the appropriate mark.
Use quotation marks to enclose titles of short songs, short poems, articles, chapters, works of art, movies, plays and books.
Periodicals, such as newspapers and magazines are not put in quotes or italicized.
Assistant and associate are not abbreviated or capitalized when used as a generic title not immediately preceding the name of the person holding the title.
Capitalize all educational, occupational, and business titles when used specifically in front of the name, unless a comma follows the title. Titles usually are not capitalized when they follow the name.
Second references to professors, deans, and administrators may be by last name only.
The first reference for a religious should include the order: William Fulco, S.J. Do not use Father and the order on the same reference. Subsequent references can be Father Fulco (spell out Father).
In British English, towards is acceptable. American English leaves off the s.
United Kingdom (UK)
It is spelled as one word in all uses.
Lowercase the word university, when in subsequent reference to Loyola Marymount University.
vice president (open, no hypen)
Web or World Wide Web, webpage, but website
In most instances, it is no longer necessary to include http:// or www. in Web addresses. However, to be sure, check that the address links without the prefix. Some http addresses are secure, and thus require https://.
Use periods at the end of sentences that end with a Web address or an email address, just as you would punctuate any other sentence. Concluding slashes on Web addresses should be omitted.
Capitalize Web but not master unless it is an official title preceding a name.
Capitalize Web but not page.
One word; not capitalized
Whose is possessive: Whose keys are these?
Who’s is a contraction of who is, who was, or who has: Who’s been sleeping in my bed?
Web or World Wide Web, Web page, but website.